Ensconcing Universe

July 16, 2011

Where do Eukaryotes come from? The distinguishing feature of eukaryotes is the stately nucleus that adorns every eukaryotic cell. The best theory to explain how nuclei came to be is called the endosymbiotic theory. The origin of the earliest eukaryotic cells was one of the leading mysteries in biologist, but the researcher Lynn Margulis offered a compelling solution to this enigma with her endosymbiosis theory. The theory can adequately explain many mysteries about the origin of the Eukaryotic domain. While much the process remains elusive, scientists believe they have a fairly accurate conception of how the first endosymbiosis occurred. Some archean bacteria have a rigid cell wall that keeps its shape, but at some point, this cell wall disappears in a certain archean lineage. Through either a faulty cell wall gene or a complete excision of the genes that controls cell wall production, a cell’s insides were no longer boxed in by a cell wall and the only thing keeping the contents of our cell from leaking into the outside world is a tenuous cell membrane. This underlying cell membrane is fluid and allows cells’ edges to fold in on themselves, creating bubbles called vacuoles. Rather than sucking in dissolved chemicals through the cell wall, this archean cell can engulf cell fragments and even whole smaller cells by folding itself over the cell to be eaten, and then pinching itself off to form a vacuole around it. This process is called phagocytosis and it engulfs macromolecules in vacuoles.

 

An archaean cell like the one described above could flop around without a cell wall and fold over its food to eat. One of these archaean cells swallowed a living a bacterium that managed to survive in the cytoplasm of the cell that ate it. This bacterium somehow was kept from being digested by a lysosome within the host cell and lived long enough to replicate with the host cell time and time again. Eventually, this bacteria found a nice little home within the archaean cell, living sheltered from the dramatic changes in the environment that the archaean has to face. Scientists tend to think that the unlucky bacterium that got engulfed was a rickettsia bacteria; this is important because rickettsia can detoxify peroxides into water. Peroxide is a free radical inside cells, hacking apart the cellular machinery and the rickettsia is useful for the archaean cell because it takes a poisonous chemical and turns it into water. This process repeats itself on Areios, creating the first eukaryotic cells by endosymbiosis.

 

Because the engulfed cell relied on the host for maintaining homeostasis, mutations or deletions in its genome for certain biological pathways could get destroyed without impacting the cell’s ability to reproduce. For instance, lodged inside another cell meant that genes responsible for locomotion could erode without hurting the viability of the engulfed bacteria. Eventually, the engulfed cell lost much of its cellular mechanics and diminished in size until it was no smaller than an organelle. Yet unlike other organelles, like mitochondria and chloroplasts, which were created by this process of endosymbiosis differ in two unique ways. First of all, they house DNA inside of a cell yet outside of the nucleus where DNA is ordinarily kept. And two, they have a membrane that shuts them off from the rest of the cell that is wholly different from the cell membrane that separates the cell from the outside world.

 

Endosymbiosis has occurred several times in the history of eukaryotic cells as seen in euglenas and other protists that have more than one membrane surrounding their organelles. This is evidence that a proto-euglena swallowed an alga, and a secondary symbiosis had occurred in that family. This would give the euglena’s mitochondria two membranes surrounding it; the original membrane that surrounded the mitochondria of the alga, and the second cell membrane came from the alga itself that went through the same process described above, where its genome and machinery could get whittled down until just the cell membrane remained.

The earliest eukaryotes could have arisen from a symbiotic relationship with an engulfed aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote

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